Centre de recherche interuniversitaire sur la formation et la profession enseignante (CRIFPE)

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UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) (2018). Handbook on Measuring Equity in Education. Montreal, Quebec : UNESCO-UIS.


Education has long been recognised as a basic human right. It is a critically-important requisite for the productivity and well-being of individuals and for the economic and social development of entire societies. Because of this, the importance of equal access to education has been emphasised repeatedly in international conventions. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of 1966 state that education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit and individual capability (United Nations, 2017b, 2017a). Access to education and learning outcomes should not be affected by circumstances outside of the control of individuals, such as gender, birthplace, ethnicity, religion, language, income, wealth or disability. Beyond the issues of fairness and basic human rights, there is ample evidence demonstrating the economic and social benefits of education (UNESCO, 2014a). Work linked to the human capital theory and returns on investment in education has shown that increased educational attainment is associated with higher personal earnings, reduced poverty and higher growth rates of national income (Becker, 1975, 2002). Other studies have examined not only the economic but also the social benefits of education (McMahon, 2009; Stacey, 1998; and Vila, 2000). Having more years of education is associated with better health, reduced maternal and child mortality, fewer disaster-related deaths, less conflict and increased civic engagement, among other benefits.


Logos des universités associées au CRIFPE

Adresse civique

Université de Montréal
Faculté des Sciences de l'Éducation
90, avenue Vincent d'Indy
Pavillon Marie-Victorin – C-536
Outremont (Québec) H2V 2S9

Adresse postale

Université de Montréal
Faculté des Sciences de l'Éducation
CRIFPE – C-543
C.P. 6128, succursale Centre-ville
Montréal (Québec) H3C 3J7